• Types and causes of diabetes
  • Treatment options for diabetes
  • Differences between men and women in the course of the disease

Like that Federal Ministry of Health informed, are in Germany 7.2 percent of adults aged 18 to 79 years from diabetes affected. Approximately 90 to 95 percentt suffer from Type 2 diabetesSince 2016, the Federal Ministry of Health has been providing funds of up to 3 million euros annually for measures to prevent and combat diabetes and other non-communicable diseases except cancer. The funds go, for example, to the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA). Current research suggest that men with diabetes are at greater risk of developing complications.

Reasons for the difference between men and women

Men have biologically a generally higher riskto develop diabetes. You have more belly fat and liver fat than women, which affects the development of Promotes insulin resistanceEven if they are not overweight, men have a lower insulin sensitivity. Male patients also take Preventive examinations not to the same extent as women, and the willingness to Change your lifestyleis also lower than in women.

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Women are due to the increased distribution of Hormones estrogen protected from diabetes for longer. After menopause increases the Diabetes risk However, the Fat on the thighswhich is genetic in women and occurs more frequently due to estrogen, probably also protects against diabetesAs an Austrian study from 2016 suggests, women are more likely to suffer from psychological stress and lack of sleepwhich in turn leads to the development of a Promote diabetes can.

Other factors for an increased risk of diabetes are the social status and environmental influencessuch as plasticizers, which are contained in many plastic items.

What types and causes of diabetes are there?

diabetes is a Autoimmune disease and is colloquially called “diabetes” because the Caused one Disturbance of glucose processing This means that the glucose ingested with food is not processed properly in the body, remains in the blood and does not reach the cells. This leads to Hyperglycemia of the blood with negative effects on the entire organism. For the transport of glucose into the cells, the Hormone insulinwhich is produced in the pancreas. If this cycle is disturbed, diabetes occurs. A distinction is made between two types of diabetes.

Diabetes type 1 is caused by an absolute deficiency of the hormone insulin. The pancreas produced no or not enough insulinThis type of diabetes usually begins in childhood and adolescence and is not curable. causes are diverse and still not sufficiently researchedIt is known that several Gene cause the disease. But also some Viral infections are suspected of causing type 1 diabetes. The disease is not yet curableand patients are on the lifelong administration of insulin reliant.

Diabetes type 2 often develops gradually. years of overproduction of insulin leads to a Overload of insulin-producing cells and a so-called Insulin resistanceThis means that the insulin present no longer fulfils its function and the glucose remains in the blood instead of entering the cells. Earlier This type of diabetes was called “Adult-onset diabetes” designated. Nowadays but get sick increasingly younger people and even Young people. As trigger apply the genetic predisposition, obesity, lack of exercise and Smoke. With regular Exercise, weight loss and healthy diet you can the Counteract disease and prevent. If you are not happy with these general measures fails to lower insulin levels, a number of Medicines in tablet form As a last resort, even in type 2 diabetes, insulin be administered.

Complications of diabetes

Diabetes causes numerous Secondary diseases If the increased blood sugar over years not treated This has a negative effect on the vessels of the body, which means that the Increased blood pressure Specifically, Wound healing disorders and Nerve problems If the blood flow to the internal organs is disturbed, it can lead to Kidney disease If the small blood vessels of the eyes are affected, there is a risk of Blindness.

The diseases that affect the large vessels of the body concern, count heart problems up to Infarction as well as the Blockage of the arteries in the extremities, especially the legs, which extend to the amputation Often this is immune system of diabetes patients so weakenedthat people are particularly vulnerable to Bacterial and fungal infections are.

If you compare men and women who have been diagnosed with diabetes, it is noticeable that Men with all complications the higher number of cases Australian researchers from the University of Sydney examined the data of 25,713 people who were at least 45 years old over a period of 10 years. The study found that the risk for Cardiovascular diseases at male patients with diabetes 51 percent higher than in women. The risk for Complications of the lower limbs was around 47 percent higherand also the risk for Kidney complications was around 55 percent higher than in women.

Summary

According to the RKI, Men in general a twice as high riskat diabetes They are also the most common cause of complications caused by the disease. The causes are very complex and require further research. In particular, the gender-specific factors should be taken into account and included in treatment and prevention. So far, only the Austrian Diabetes Society (ÖDG) has its own gender-specific guidelines developed. Preventive for both sexes applies: Avoid being overweightn and for enough exercise care for.

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